# Puiseux series

Nemo allows the creation of Puiseux series over any computable ring $R$. Puiseux series are series of the form $a_jx^{j/m} + a_{j+1}x^{(j+1)/m} + \cdots + a_{k-1}x^{(k-1)/m} + O(x^{k/m})$ where $m$ is a positive integer, $a_i \in R$ and the relative precision $k - j$ is at most equal to some specified precision $n$.

There are two different kinds of implementation: a generic one for the case where no specific implementation exists (provided by AbstractAlgebra.jl), and efficient implementations of Puiseux series over numerous specific rings, usually provided by C/C++ libraries.

The following table shows each of the Puiseux series types available in Nemo, the base ring $R$, and the Julia/Nemo types for that kind of series (the type information is mainly of concern to developers).

Base ring | Library | Element type | Parent type |
---|---|---|---|

Generic ring $R$ | AbstractAlgebra.jl | `Generic.PuiseuxSeriesRingElem{T} | `Generic.PuiseuxSeriesRing{T}` |

Generic field $K$ | AbstractAlgebra.jl | `Generic.PuiseuxSeriesFieldElem{T} | `Generic.PuiseuxSeriesField{T}` |

$\mathbb{Z}$ | Flint | `FlintPuiseuxSeriesRingElem{ZZLaurentSeriesRingElem}` | `FlintPuiseuxSeriesRing{ZZLaurentSeriesRingElem}` |

For convenience, `FlintPuiseuxSeriesRingElem`

and `FlintPuiseuxSeriesFieldElem`

both belong to a union type called `FlintPuiseuxSeriesElem`

.

The maximum relative precision, the string representation of the variable and the base ring $R$ of a generic power series are stored in the parent object.

Note that unlike most other Nemo types, Puiseux series are parameterised by the type of the underlying Laurent series type (which must exist before Nemo can make use of it), instead of the type of the coefficients.

## Puiseux power series

Puiseux series have their maximum relative precision capped at some value `prec_max`

. This refers to the maximum precision of the underlying Laurent series. See the description of the generic Puiseux series in AbstractAlgebra.jl for details.

There are numerous important things to be aware of when working with Puiseux series, or series in general. Please refer to the documentation of generic Puiseux series and series in general in AbstractAlgebra.jl for details.

## Puiseux series functionality

Puiseux series rings in Nemo implement all the same functionality that is available for AbstractAlgebra series rings, with the exception of the `pol_length`

and `polcoeff`

functions:

https://nemocas.github.io/AbstractAlgebra.jl/stable/series

In addition, generic Puiseux series are provided by AbstractAlgebra.jl

We list below only the functionality that differs from that described in AbstractAlgebra, for specific rings provided by Nemo.

### Special functions

`Base.sqrt`

— Method`Base.sqrt(f::PolyRingElem{T}; check::Bool=true) where T <: RingElement`

Return the square root of $f$. By default the function checks the input is square and raises an exception if not. If `check=false`

this check is omitted.

`Base.sqrt(a::FracElem{T}; check::Bool=true) where T <: RingElem`

Return the square root of $a$. By default the function will throw an exception if the input is not square. If `check=false`

this test is omitted.

`sqrt(a::Generic.PuiseuxSeriesElem{T}; check::Bool=true) where T <: RingElement`

Return the square root of the given Puiseux series $a$. By default the function will throw an exception if the input is not square. If `check=false`

this test is omitted.

`Base.exp`

— Method`exp(a::AbsPowerSeriesRingElem)`

Return the exponential of the power series $a$.

`exp(a::RelPowerSeriesRingElem)`

Return the exponential of the power series $a$.

`exp(a::Generic.LaurentSeriesElem)`

Return the exponential of the power series $a$.

`exp(a::Generic.PuiseuxSeriesElem{T}) where T <: RingElement`

Return the exponential of the given Puiseux series $a$.

`Nemo.eta_qexp`

— Method`eta_qexp(x::FlintPuiseuxSeriesElem{ZZLaurentSeriesRingElem})`

Return the $q$-series for eta evaluated at $x$, which must currently be a rational power of the generator of the Puiseux series ring.

**Examples**

```
julia> S, z = puiseux_series_ring(ZZ, 30, "z")
(Puiseux series ring in z over ZZ, z + O(z^31))
julia> a = 1 + z + 3z^2 + O(z^5)
1 + z + 3*z^2 + O(z^5)
julia> h = sqrt(a^2)
1 + z + 3*z^2 + O(z^5)
julia> k = eta_qexp(z)
z^(1//24) - z^(25//24) + O(z^(31//24))
```