# Residue Ring Interface

Residue rings (currently a quotient ring modulo a principal ideal) are supported in AbstractAlgebra.jl, at least for Euclidean base rings. In addition to the standard Ring interface, some additional functions are required to be present for residue rings.

## Types and parents

AbstractAlgebra provides four abstract types for residue rings and their elements:

`ResRing{T}`

is the abstract type for residue ring parent types`ResField{T}`

is the abstract type for residue rings known to be fields`ResElem{T}`

is the abstract type for types of elements of residue rings (residues)`ResFieldElem{T}`

is the abstract type for types of elements of residue fields

We have that `ResRing{T} <: AbstractAlgebra.Ring`

and `ResElem{T} <: AbstractAlgebra.RingElem`

.

Note that these abstract types are parameterised. The type `T`

should usually be the type of elements of the base ring of the residue ring/field.

If the parent object for a residue ring has type `MyResRing`

and residues in that ring have type `MyRes`

then one would have:

`MyResRing <: ResRing{BigInt}`

`MyRes <: ResElem{BigInt}`

Residue rings should be made unique on the system by caching parent objects (unless an optional `cache`

parameter is set to `false`

). Residue rings should at least be distinguished based on their base ring and modulus (the principal ideal one is taking a quotient of the base ring by).

See `src/generic/GenericTypes.jl`

for an example of how to implement such a cache (which usually makes use of a dictionary).

## Required functionality for residue rings

In addition to the required functionality for the Ring interface the Residue Ring interface has the following required functions.

We suppose that `R`

is a fictitious base ring, $m$ is an element of that ring, and that `S`

is the residue ring (quotient ring) $R/(m)$ with parent object `S`

of type `MyResRing{T}`

. We also assume the residues $r \pmod{m}$ in the residue ring have type `MyRes{T}`

, where `T`

is the type of elements of the base ring.

Of course, in practice these types may not be parameterised, but we use parameterised types here to make the interface clearer.

Note that the type `T`

must (transitively) belong to the abstract type `RingElem`

.

### Data type and parent object methods

`modulus(S::MyResRing{T}) where T <: AbstractAlgebra.RingElem`

Return the modulus of the given residue ring, i.e. if the residue ring $S$ was specified to be $R/(m)$, return $m$.

**Examples**

```
julia> R, x = PolynomialRing(QQ, "x")
(Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rationals, x)
julia> S = ResidueRing(R, x^3 + 3x + 1)
Residue ring of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rationals modulo x^3+3//1*x+1//1
julia> m = modulus(S)
x^3+3//1*x+1//1
```

### Basic manipulation of rings and elements

`data(f::MyRes{T}) where T <: AbstractAlgebra.RingElem`

Given a residue $r \pmod{m}$, represented as such, return $r$.

**Examples**

```
julia> R, x = PolynomialRing(QQ, "x")
(Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rationals, x)
julia> S = ResidueRing(R, x^3 + 3x + 1)
Residue ring of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rationals modulo x^3+3//1*x+1//1
julia> f = S(x^2 + 2)
x^2+2//1
julia> d = data(f)
x^2+2//1
```