Nemo provides rudimentary support for permutation groups. These are mainly used for permutations of rows of matrices.

Permutation groups are created using the PermGroup (inner) constructor. However, for convenience we define

PermutationGroup = PermGroup

so that permutation groups can be created using PermutationGroup instead of PermGroup.

The types of permutations in Nemo are given by the following table, along with the libraries that provide them and the associated types of the parent objects.

Library Group Element type Parent type
Native perm PermGroup

All the permutation group types belong to the Group abstract type and the corresponding permutation element types belong to the GroupElem abstract type.

Permutation group constructors

In order to construct permutations in Nemo, one must first construct the permutation group they belong to. This is accomplished with the following constructor.


Construct the permutation group on points. The function returns the parent object representing the group.

Here are some examples of creating a permutation group and using the parent object to create a permutation (the identity permutation).

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = G()

Permutation constructors

Once a permutation group is constructed, there are various ways to construct permutations in that group.

Apart from the identity permutation coercion as above, we offer the following functions.

# Base.eyeMethod.


Return the identity permutation for the given permutation group.


Note that permutations consist of lists of integers numbered from to . If the -th entry of a permuation is , this corresponds to sending in the permutation.

Here are some examples of creating permutations.

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = eye(G)

Basic functionality

The following basic functionality is provided by the default permutation group implementation in Nemo, to support construction of other generic constructions over permutation groups. Any custom permutation group implementation in Nemo should provide these functions along with the usual group element arithmetic.


Gives the type of the parent object of a permutation group element.


Given the parent object for a permutation group, return the type of elements of the group.

Base.hash(a::perm, h::UInt)

Return a UInt hexadecimal hash of the permutation element . This should be xor'd with a fixed random hexadecimal specific to the permutation group type. The hash of the entries of the permutation should be xor'd with the supplied parameter h as part of computing the hash.


Construct a copy of the given permutation group element and return it. This function must recursively construct copies of all of the internal data in the given element. Nemo permutation group elements are mutable and so returning shallow copies is not sufficient.

getindex(a::perm, n::Int)

Allows access to entry of the given permutation via the syntas a[n]. Note that entries are -indexed.

setindex!(a::perm, d::Int, n::Int)

Set the -th entry of the given permutation to . This allows Julia to provide the syntax for setting entries of a permuation. Note that entries are -indexed.

Given the parent object G for a permutation group, the following coercion functions are provided to coerce various elements into the permutation group. Developers provide these by overloading the call operator for the permutation group parent objects.


Return the identity permutation.

R(A::Array{Int, 1})

Return the permutation whose entries are given by the elements of the supplied vector.


Take a permutation that is already in the permutation group and simply return it. A copy of the original is not made.

In addition to the above, developers of custom permutation group types must ensure that each permutation element contains a field parent specifying the parent object of the permutation group element, or at least supply the equivalent of the function parent(a::perm) to return the parent object of a permutation group element.

Basic manipulation

Numerous functions are provided to manipulate permutation group elements. Also see the section on basic functionality above.

# Base.parentMethod.


Return the parent of the given permutation group element.


# Base.parityMethod.


Return the parity of the given permutation, i.e. the parity of the number of transpositions that compose it. The function returns if the parity is odd otherwise it returns .


Here are some examples of basic manipulation of permutations.

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = G([1, 3, 5, 2, 4])

R = parent(p)
a = parity(p)

Arithmetic operators

# Base.:*Method.

*(a::perm, b::perm)

Return the composition of the two permutations, i.e. . In other words, the permutation corresponding to applying first, then , is returned.


Here are some examples of arithmetic operations.

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = G([1, 3, 5, 2, 4])
q = G([5, 4, 1, 3, 2])

a = p*q


``@docs ==(::perm, ::perm)

Here are some examples of comparison.

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = G([1, 3, 5, 2, 4]) q = G([5, 4, 1, 3, 2])

p == q

## Inversion

@docs inv(::perm)

Here are some examples of inversion.

G = PermutationGroup(5)

p = G([1, 3, 5, 2, 4])

a = inv(p) ```